By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This e-book offers the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken via fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the made of vast research via the authors and members in box equipment and workforce research classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters protecting the segmental phonology, tone procedure, morphology, and sentence constitution, by means of appendices at the Nzadi humans and historical past and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound alterations. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had now not even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the learn of Nzadi is its huge grammatical simplification, leading to buildings really diversified from these of canonical Bantu languages. even if Nzadi has misplaced lots of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun category contract in genitive buildings. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause structures, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet complete grammar presents extensive assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic houses that might be of power curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people attracted to this sector of the DRC, but additionally to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
3 Vowel Centralization In normal speech a short /e/ in open syllable is often centralized to [ˆ]. When preceded by a labial consonant, it may be realized [ˆ] or [U]. This happens especially to /Ca/ verbs when they change to /Ce/ in the past tense. 2. 4. Vowel Harmony Before leaving vowel alternations, a word should be added concerning vowel harmony. Given the historical shortening of words, it is not surprising to find that there is no stem-level vowel harmony, as found elsewhere in Bantu. Of the 52 bisyllabic verb stems in the lexicon, the three vowels /i, u, a/ occur freely in the second syllable: four bisyllabic verbs have /i/, 24 have /u/ and 22 have /a/.
Tí ikç@ç@r tí etúN tí okáàr tí akáàr tí muur ‘with a frog’ ‘with a fly’ ‘with a woman’ ‘with women’ ‘with a person’ In general, when the assimilating V1 is a stem vowel, vowel coalescence is optional, but, if occuring, a long vowel results. This is observed especially clearly when an open syllable stem precedes the genitive linker /é/. 42] [email protected] + é + mùùr osEE + é + mùùr adza + é + mùùr esaa + é + mùùr ! ! atéé múùr osee múùr adzéé múùr esee múùr ‘the person’s saliva’ ‘the person’s pain’ ‘the person’s water’ ‘the person’s food’ As seen, both long and short vowels assimilate before /é/, with the potential mergers.
11] that CVVC stems can end only in /m/, /n/ or /r/. 27] nasals -N > -m 27 liquids > -n > -l back vowels > stops -r > -k > -p > -t front vowels u > a > ç > i > e aa > uu > çç > ii > EE > E As seen, the three nasal consonants occur the most frequently in codas, followed by the two liquids, and the three stops. Back vowels occur more frequently in closed syllables in lexical entries than front vowels, with /u/ and /a/ being disproportionately represented. While long vowels are much less frequent in closed syllables, the overrepresentation of /a/ (31 out of a total of 54) is quite striking, as is the absence of /ee/.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu