By Carlton J. H. Hayes
Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) was once additionally effective: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no situation; in go back for this concession England reduced the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 used to be now not destructive both, for it tested universal exchange laws, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the in basic terms own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) through the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded lower than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies lower than the name of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persisted Decline of Royal strength Upon the demise of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in line with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the recent king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor frightened to rule, yet was once content material simply to reign. The enterprise of management, accordingly, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to hold the good-will of the fundamental social gathering in Parliament. Sidenote: upward push of the cupboard due to the fact that this custom, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has turn into a so much crucial a part of the govt of the uk this present day, and has been copied lately by way of many different nations, you will need to comprehend its early historical past. Even prior to the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had steered and assisted early kings in concerns of management had surrendered such a lot of its real features to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip grew to become unwieldy,...
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Other towns, formerly founded by bishops, abbots, or counts, had received charters at the very outset. [Sidenote: Merchant Gilds] A peculiar outgrowth of the need for protection against oppressive feudal lords, as well as against thieves, swindlers, and dishonest workmen, had been the typically urban organization known as the merchant gild or the merchants’ company. In the year 1500 the merchant gilds were everywhere on the decline, but they still preserved many of their earlier and more glorious traditions.
It was during the Crusades that Venice gained numerous coastal districts and islands in the Ægean besides immunities and privileges in Constantinople, and thereby laid the foundation of her maritime empire. The Crusades not only enabled Italian merchants to bring Eastern commodities to the West; they increased the demand for such commodities. Crusaders–pilgrims and adventurers–returned from the Holy Land with astonishing tales of the luxury and opulence of the East. Not infrequently they had acquired a taste for Eastern silks or spices during their stay in Asia Minor or Palestine; or they brought curious jewels stripped from fallen infidels to awaken the envy of the stay-at-homes.
Despite wide territories and a succession of able rulers, Poland was a weak monarchy. Lack of natural boundaries made national defense difficult. Civil war between the two peoples who composed the state and foreign war with the neighboring Germans worked havoc and 31 distress. An obstructive parliament of great lords rendered effective administration impossible. The nobles possessed the property and controlled politics; in their hands the king gradually became a puppet. Poland seemed committed to feudal society and feudal government at the very time when the countries of western Europe were ridding themselves of such checks upon the free growth of centralized national states.
A political and social history of modern Europe by Carlton J. H. Hayes