By Jagdamba Singh, R. K. P. Singh, L. D. S. Yadav, I. Q. Siddiqui
The target of this ebook is to supply adequate wisdom to its readers concerning the proposal of complex useful CHEMISTRY
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Extra resources for Advanced Practical Chemistry
Spectroscopic methods are relatively rapid and require only very small amount of material. These methods include ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic responance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. 1 Physical State A note is made as to whether the unknown compound is a liquid or solid. This information is useful in consulting tables of compounds which are subdivided on this basis (See Chapter-4). 2 Colour The colour of the unknown compound is noted as well as any change in colour which may occur during the determination of the boiling point.
It may be noted that although glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannose, galactose and other carbohydrates are all water soluble, but they yield syrupy liquid, from which it is very difficult to get crystalline solid. Hence the mixture containing carbohydrate is separated by ether or by absolute alcohol because carbohydrates are insoluble in them. The above basic principles can be made clear by the following examples: Example 1. The separation of urea from acetanilide is effected by extraction with water.
Solubility of the unknown compound also indicates the presence or absence of particular group(s). The presence of functional group(s) in the compound then is confirmed by the use of suitable reagents. These tests must be selected in such a way as not merely to establish the presence of certain functional groups but also to exclude others from consideration. At this point, but usually not before, it is advantageous to consult the classified list of compounds. The classified list of compounds is given in Chapter 4.
Advanced Practical Chemistry by Jagdamba Singh, R. K. P. Singh, L. D. S. Yadav, I. Q. Siddiqui