By Norman John Greville Pounds
This booklet, like its significant other quantity, An old Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to envision the complicated of usual and man-made positive aspects that experience encouraged the process historical past and feature been prompted by way of it. It follows the overall development of the sooner quantity and spans the interval from the early 16th century to the eve of the commercial Revolution in continental Europe, nearly 1500 to 1840. It first offers an image of the geography of Europe - political, social and monetary - within the early 16th century, and it ends with an analogous photograph of continental Europe within the early 19th. The intervening interval of approximately 3 centuries is just too brief to be provided in a chain of cross-sections. as an alternative, among those horizontal photos a sequence of vertical stories has been inserted. those hint the advance of the most points of ecu geography in this interval. There are chapters on inhabitants, city improvement, agriculture, production and alternate and shipping. As within the prior quantity, no try has been made to incorporate both the British Isles or Russia, and those are observed simply by the way.
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Extra resources for An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840
They were, however, supplemented by 'garden' crops, without which it would have been difficult to sustain life. Almost every rural household had its garden, in which were grown beans and peas, source of much of the peasants' intake of protein, as well as green vegetables, roots and herbs, not to mention industrial crops such as flax, hemp and dyestuffs. Around the houses of the rich were large gardens which contributed an important part of the food supply. All treatises on agronomy which were written for a well-to-do clientele contained long chapters on the management of gardens.
Every incorporated town had walls and gates to emphasise its separateness from the villages. 85 Little attempt had been made during the Middle Ages to portray towns pictorially. They had sometimes formed part of the background of Italian paintings, but were usually highly stylised. By the early sixteenth century it had become common to draw and engrave a faithful representation of a particular town. Diirer's Nuremberg, Leonardo da Vinci's Imola, Bufalini's Rome, Truschet and Hoyau's Paris, and some of the illustrations in Schedel's Liber chronicarum and Sebastian Miinster's Cosmographia have pretensions to accuracy in their portrayal of both the plans and buildings of towns.
Population In the early decades of the sixteenth century the population of most of Europe was again expanding after its contraction during the closing centuries of the Middle Ages. The evidence is fragmentary, but all of it points in the same direction. Some time in the fifteenth century the number of births in the aggregate began to exceed that of deaths. The reasons are obscure. Perhaps epidemic diseases were less virulent; perhaps the availability of agricultural land led to a lower average age at marriage.
An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840 by Norman John Greville Pounds