By Solveig Bosse
Applicative Arguments: A Syntactic and Semantic research of German and English provides formal semantic and syntactic analyses of German and English applicative arguments. those arguments are nominal components that aren't compulsory components of a sentence. either German and English have various kinds of applicative arguments, together with so-called benefactive and malefactive structures. extra in particular, the examine is dependent upon checks to tell apart the differing kinds of applicative arguments in line with this contribution to that means: a few applicatives give a contribution merely not-at-issue which means, while others give a contribution simply at-issue which means, and nonetheless others give a contribution either varieties of which means. those checks are utilized to either German and English to uniquely determine the applicative arguments in each one language. Formal analyses of the pointed out form of applicative arguments are awarded that supply an account for every form of applicative pointed out for every language, explaining the applicatives’ variations and similarities.
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Additional info for Applicative Arguments: A Syntactic and Semantic Investigation of German and English
Ii. If the CEO has a breakdown in the next two weeks, we'll all quit. Having the affected experiencer in the if-clause influences the conditions of the clause. In (57a), Jan will only receive the money if the husband is affected by the praising. If the affected experiencer argument were not included in the clause, he would get the money as long as Lisa praised the suit (regardless of an effect on the husband). Similarly, in (57b-ii) any breakdown of the CEO will make us quit, whereas in (57b-i) the breakdown must have an effect on us to quit.
2. *Alex broke Ben's vase, but it didn't matter to Chris. (Bosse et al. 2012, example 30a) b. [[VoiceP]] = λe. BREAK(e) & Thm(e)(Ben's vase) & Agt(e)(Alex) & e'(EXPER(e') & Exp(e')(Chris) : e'' ((BREAK(e'') & Thm(e'')(Ben's vase)) → Source(e'')(e')) As can be seen from the denotation, the event variable of the experiencing event is existentially quantified. Existentially quantified variables in general do not seem to be available as a target of negation. For instance, causatives require that one event causes another event: thus, in (84), the event of John doing something caused the ice cream to melt.
This goes along with a sentience requirement for the affected experiencer (44). 44. Gerald broke the vase on his dead grandfather. The non-sentient individual denoted by the argument his dead grandfather in (44) cannot be interpreted as an affected experiencer but rather must be understood as a location or as a personification of the dead grandfather, for instance the grandfather's ghost who could be psychologically affected. Other uses of onPPs, for instance the locative one, do not have this requirement (45).
Applicative Arguments: A Syntactic and Semantic Investigation of German and English by Solveig Bosse