By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk grew to become the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately remodeling his state right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified by way of science--and by way of the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign superb because the new faith. This publication offers the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the historic context of the turbulent age within which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the overdue Ottoman imperial order to the fashionable Turkish nation via his lifestyles and ideas.
laying off gentle on some of the most advanced and enigmatic statesmen of the trendy period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's early life as a Muslim boy within the risky ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and armed forces faculties, to his include of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks circulation. Who was once this determine who sought glory as an bold younger officer in global warfare I, defied the successful Allies cause on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each level of his lifestyles, demonstrating how he used to be profoundly motivated by way of the hot rules that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He indicates how Atatürk drew on a distinct mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to model a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.
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Additional resources for Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography
26 fin-de-si�cle salonica 21 poverty in the countryside was a painful one. Like the other members of the family, Mustafa attempted to adjust to rural life, but without success. 28 The disruption of his education distressed his mother immensely. Mustafa briefly attended a Greek school at a nearby church. Subsequently, an Albanian steward at the farm taught him some basic subjects. But it was not enough. 29 Mustafa returned to Salonica to live with his paternal aunt Hatice. Shortly afterward, an unpleasant incident cut short his studies at the town’s civilian preparatory school: one of Mustafa’s teachers beat him severely in a fit of rage for his participation in a brawl among students.
Mustafa Kemal embraced some bold ideas in this regard. 14 Only a state undergirded by a robust national identity, he reasoned, would be capable of fielding a strong army. What he imagined was a “Turkish nation in arms”—not an Ottoman one. Although the idea was Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Sınıf Arkadaşım Atatürk: Okul ve Genç Subaylık Hâtıraları (Istanbul: İnkılâp ve Aka, 1967), 108, 114–17. 14 38 chapter 2 not novel, it was held to be impractical by many of his colleagues who, however sympathetic, insisted on saving what they could of the decaying empire.
21 The unsuccessful counterrevolution of April 1909, in turn, was led by unschooled officers who sought to sideline their educated comrades. The failure of this attempt to restore the old order ended the role of the Hamidian cronies in the Ottoman military. The educated Ottoman officer corps that emerged in the years after the 1883 reforms, and especially the staff officers, formed the backbone of the CUP’s military wing and provided the leadership “Tasfiye-i Rüteb-i Askeriye Kanunu,” in Düstûr, II/1 (Istanbul: Matbaa-i Osmaniye, 1329 ), 421–23.
Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu