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Oxford, UK. Pauling, L. (1960). The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Ivan Vesely and Evelyn Owen Carew INTRODUCTION The previous chapter introduced the reader to the concepts of elasticity, stress, and strain. Estimations of material stress and strain are necessary during the course of device design to minimize the chance of device failure. For example, artificial hip joints need to be designed to withstand the loads that they are expected to bear without fracture or fatigue.

In fluid flow, FEA has been applied to weather forecasting and supersonic flow around aircraft and within engines, and in the medical field, to optimizing blood pumps and cannulas. In solids, FEA has been used to design, build, and crash automobiles, estimate the impact of earthquakes, and reconstruct crime scenes. In biomaterials, FEA has been applied to almost every implantable device, ranging from artificial joints to pacemaker leads. Although originally developed to help structural engineers analyze stress and strain, FEA has been adopted by basic scientists and biologists to study the dynamic environment within arteries, muscles and even cells.

Closest packing possible for spheres of uniform size. In any enclosure filled with close-packed spheres, 74% of the volume will be occupied by the spheres. In the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure, each atom or ion has eight touching neighbors or eightfold coordination. Surprisingly, the density of packing is only reduced to 68% so that the BCC structure is nearly as densely packed as the FCC and HCP structures (Hummel, 1997). Ceramics Weak Bonding In addition to the three strong bonds, there are several weak secondary bonds that significantly influence the properties of some solids, especially polymers.

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Biomaterials Science - An Intro to Materials in Medicine by B. Ratner, et al.,

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