By Eduard Imhof
Eduard Imhof's vintage publication Cartographic aid Presentation is once more on hand. in the self-discipline of cartography, few works are thought of classics within the experience of protecting their curiosity, relevance, and notion with the passage of time. One such paintings is Imhof's masterpiece on aid illustration. As a special exhibit of research and portrayal, this is often a superb instance of the necessity for cartography to mix mind and portraits in fixing map layout difficulties. the variety, aspect, and clinical artistry of his recommendations are offered in a instructing context that places this paintings in a category on its own, with common importance.
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Extra resources for Cartographic Relief Presentation
In terrestrial photogrammetry, one usually selects two survey stations, close to one another and at approximately the same elevation, surveyed both horizontally and vertically. Then photographs are taken along parallel lines of sight and approximately transverse to a line joining the two stations. Thus, both photographs show essentially one and the same piece of terrain. When observed stereoscopically such a pair of photographs produces a spatial threedimensional model. The photographic instrument employed is the photo-theodolite.
The method of shadow hachures was in use until the middle of our century as the representational style of many national and private maps, and it has largely superseded slope hachures in small scale maps. This is confirmed by its use in the outstanding terrain engravings appearing in the 8th Edition ( 1 8 8 8 - 1 8 9 1 ) and 9th Edition ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 5 ) (Figure 152) of Stielers Handatlas, and in Vogels Karte des Deutschen Reiches (Vogel's M a p of the German Empire) (1891—1893) at 1:500,000.
These relationships are expressed by the following formula: V5 For combined measurement and calculation operations, analogous formulae are operative but the accuracy calculations are then considerably more complicated. The mean errors m and M only express (and this is re-emphasized) measures of the accuracy or reliability of quantities. They allow us to see approximately how large the accidental deviations of the survey results may be. A large v, that is, the difference between the arithmetic mean A and an individual measurement I can be double or even triple the mean error m l despite careful measurement, without any gross error being involved.
Cartographic Relief Presentation by Eduard Imhof