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By M. Bittner

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3 Otherwise the report is bent out of shape if we try to do it that way. That being the case, I will kick away this ladder, having climbed up it part way. Rather than continue to rely on the formulation in terms of "what the speaker said", I will take as my guiding star the idea that an illocutionary act report is an oratio obliqua report that it is plausible to regard as giving the content of the utterance. The identification of illocutionary acts by content specifying oralio obli­ qua reports is a very different way of introducing the term from that em­ ployed by Austin.

Obviously, I can produce a sentence by writing rather than by making noise. But there too I will have done something on the same semantic level as making noises, viz. , making marks. To avoid intolerable circumlocutions I will restrict myself to oral speech, leaving it to the reader to make the application to other modes of linguistic behavior. •8 The Nature of l IIocutionary Acts fect grasp of their defining features, and hence be unable to say what dif­ ferentiates them from still other sorts of speech acts, for example, lying and making conversation.

To continue with Austin, an illocutionary act is the act of issuing a locu­ tion (upshot of a locutionary act) with a certain "force", for example, the force of a question or a warning or a promise. And to perform a pe1'locu­ tionary act is to produce certain effects on an audience by one 's utterance ( 1 96 2 , 98 - 1 0 1 ) . These are still higher strata that again presuppose the lower but are not presupposed by them. I cannot say something with a cer­ tain force without saying something, nor can I produce certain effects by my utterance without uttering something.

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Case, Scope, and Binding by M. Bittner


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